Sustainable Food Choices

Plant-based Foods

Plant-based foods, such as legumes, fruits, and vegetables, can reduce GHG emissions up to 84%, according to a study. Plant-based foods or vegan food are therefore the most sustainable choice. Plant-based diets are the most eco-friendly, but only a few people choose to eat this way. In the United States, meat is more affordable than in many developing countries.

Advertising, normally targeted at individuals, promotes the consumption of animal products, like eggs, cheese, and yogurt. Animal-sourced foods are so common in the U.S., that only 2% adhere to a strictly plant-based diet. Some people may find that vegan foods are either more expensive or unavailable in their area. Fruits and vegetables, along with essential grains and oils, are increasing in price by up to 7.5% as inflation increases grocery prices.

Vegetable Skewer


Vegetarianism and veganism are similar. Some vegetarians do consume dairy products or eggs. According to studies, vegetarianism emits 59% less GHG than animal foods. Vegetarians can get enough protein from sources such as tofu and plant-based foods like lentils, beans, or nuts. They also eat spinach, soy, and tofu. The right amount of protein can be provided by eggs.

Vegetarian or vegan food consumption is more sustainable in terms of water and land consumption. This is because it reduces agricultural land usage by 75% globally. There are still other ways that excessive emissions can creep into the production of plant-based foods. Transporting, packaging, and selling food are responsible for 29% of the global food system’s emissions. Vegetarians should instead look for local, seasonal produce which has not traveled too far in the supply chain. Another way to consume more sustainably is by choosing to produce other products without packaging.



Flexitarians are primarily vegetarians, but occasionally consume animal products. Flexitarians reduce their carbon footprints by reducing the consumption of processed foods, red meat, dairy products, and fish. You can still enjoy a juicy hamburger-sparingly while focusing on whole-plant foods instead. Eating plant-based foods or flexitarian food has many benefits. According to research, eating vegetarian or semi-vegetarian food can reduce mortality risks by up to 12%. Flexitarians’ is less sustainable because it includes meat.



Mediterranean food has long been considered the healthiest food in the world. It consists of fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, olive oil and herbs and spices. Fish and seafood should be consumed at least two times a week. Eggs, dairy products, poultry, and other foods are eaten in moderation. Red meat, sweets and dairy products are only eaten occasionally. Eating Mediterranean foods can also reduce heart disease risk by 20-30%, which is why it is one of the top recommendations that cardiologists make to their patients.

Mediterranean eating is more environmentally friendly because of the limited consumption of red meat. However, a diet that includes substantial amounts of fish can also be harmful to the environment. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations says that over 90% of the fish stocks in the world are depleted and overexploited. People should purchase local fish instead of imported products to ensure that fishing is sustainable.


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Ketogenic Diets Based on Plants

In recent years, ketogenic eating has become increasingly popular – it is a low-carbohydrate diet that is high in fat and regarded as ideal for weight loss. Many people choose ketogenic food to manage medical conditions like heart disease, epilepsy, and neurological disorders. Plant-ketogenic diets are different from animal-based diets. They contain 70-80% fat, and a moderate amount of animal proteins.

Globally, the livestock industry emits 8.1 gigatonnes of harmful emissions. Beef production accounts for approximately 50% of these emissions. Nitrous oxide and CO2 account for 24 and 26 percent, respectively. Even more alarming, an analysis by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggests that the exact number of emissions are 39% to 90 percent higher than estimated. Eating plant-based oils instead of animal fats is more environmentally friendly than eating typical meat dishes.

Steak on a grill

Better Food for a Better Planet

Fresh produce and natural ingredients are better than heavily processed foods for a sustainable diet. It is healthier for both people and the environment to consume a large number of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and legumes. The nutritional requirements of each person are different, so it is important to choose foods that will benefit their health and wellbeing.